Tag Archives: gluten intolerance

Something Stupid!

I have to admit I did something quite stupid recently, and I paid for it. Mind you, I would never knowingly touch a crumb of gluten. Yes, it’s that nasty for probably about 30% of the population according to some experts. Whether you have celiac disease or are gluten intolerant you should never consume this troublesome protein.

We were out for a bite of dinner and I ordered a gluten-free vegetarian pizza. When it arrived I realized I’d forgotten to ask for no dairy. The waitress was happy to get me another pizza without cheese, but I said, against my better judgement, not to bother. I managed to foolishly consume most of it.

At the gym the next morning I would say I was about 20% off my usual self. I could feel my lower back around my spine, my leg muscles talked to me, my energy wasn’t quite there, and my balance and rhythm were a bit off. I was also a bit stuffy. You might think this isn’t so bad, but with repeated indulgence of foods our body recognizes as “the bad guy” along with the # 1 “bad boy, gluten” that many of you are in sheer denial about, the inflammation that is generated may be wearing away at numerous levels of your health.

If I had intestinal ramifications from dairy I never would have let this slip. But I never should have anyway because the immune system recognizes dairy as a foreign invader, in my case, and creates antibodies to fight these antigens off. Dairy can act just like gluten in destroying the villi. (1)

Gluten can affect any part of your body in a degenerative manner, and dairy seems to be affecting about 50% of those on a GF diet that I talk to.

Do you have aches and pains, fatigue, general ill health, brain fog, skin or gastro issues? Download the Free Report on the Home page upper right corner for a list of 50 symptoms and disorders linked to gluten at http://toxicstaple.com. Gluten and dairy may be at the root of what’s ailing you or someone you love. Dig your head out of the sand before your health spirals down any further.

There is no end to the research on a lengthy list of over 300 symptoms and diseases linked to gluten. It appears through copious reading since 2004 that there’s not much illness that’s not linked to gluten and often dairy, as many of my storytellers report. Add in heavy metals, dirty water and air, chemicals and plastics, and you have a toxic soup of degenerative disease and numerous ailments. At least clean up the toxins in your environment you can control before they control you!

Become your own advocate to rise above your ailments and live a longer, stronger, healthier life. Do it now before your health issues become much worse. You can do this!

  1. Watt, J., J. R. Pincott, and J. T. Harries. “Combined Cow’s Milk Protein and Gluten-induced Enteropathy: Common or Rare?” Gut 24 (1983): 165–70.

 

 

Problematic Pregnancies and Gluten

Did you know “the prevalence of celiac disease is estimated to be 4 to 8 times higher in women with fertility problems than in the general population?” (1)

Many women having pregnancy or women’s issues are undiagnosed and therefore untreated celiacs. This opens the door for any number of problematic pregnancy issues.

It is a no-brainer that women should be screened for celiac disease before they even think of becoming pregnant, yet this is not even one of the required tests  if pregnant, and it would be important to know if they were gluten intolerant too. Testing for gluten intolerance is practically nonexistent and often the celiac testing is false negative. (Testing is well covered in Toxic Staple.)

There remains huge unawareness among OB/GYN professionals about the numerous hazards of gluten and how it affects the mother and the fetus. Many of these issues will resolve or not evolve if gluten is addressed with an absolute gluten-free diet.

Celiac is a malabsorption issue. When you can’t absorb your vitamins and minerals that keep the body and a fetus healthy a vast array of nasty outcomes may develop including infertility (and sterility), miscarriage, light birthweight, premature births, developmental and learning disabilities, and many more (discussed in Chapter 12: Our Children Are Our Future).

Send your GF success story to share anon. on the Toxic Staple Blog to Anne at:  http://toxicstaple.com/contact/

http://www.drschaer/institute.com/smartedit/documents/content/_published/Forum_02.2016%20US.pdf?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email_

Disclaimer

Endorsements for Toxic Staple

Toxic Staple was written to enlighten the general public that is so sick and tired of being sick and tired about the hazards of gluten; however, many glowing endorsements by doctors and professionals in-the-know suggest doctors read Toxic Staple.The research, made easy-to-read and tied into many gluten-free success stories of lives turning around, delves into many of the 300 plus symptoms and diseases linked to gluten by over 19,000 studies. 

Check them out here: http://toxicstaple.com/endorsements/ 

If you would like to share an endorsement for Toxic Staple please do so through Amazon at https://www.amazon.com/Toxic-Staple-Gluten-Wrecking-Health/dp/0989239217 and/or at the “contact” on this site:  http://toxicstaple.com/contact/.

  • This is an excellent book!  Anne Sarkisian has sifted through a daunting quantity of research on the subject of gluten intolerance, then delivered the information in readable, layperson language. The urgent quest to understand the reason for her five year old grandson’s poor health set Anne on her mission to educate others about this subject.  Readers will find this to be a sensible book with practical suggestions that include specific testing that can be ordered to determine if symptoms experienced lie on the continuum of celiac disease.  Case examples round out the picture.  Sarkisian’s writing style is clear, concise, compelling.  Toxic Staple ought to be read by and in the waiting room of every health care professional!   >> by Barbara Wooly 5/6/17

Is Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Linked to Gluten? Do you have shortness of breath or a low level of oxygen? What shape is your liver in?

While looking for something else I ran across a website on hepatopulmonary syndrome. Hepato has to do with your liver, and pulmonary has to do with your lungs. When your liver is compromised your lungs may also become damaged and not function up to capacity causing shortness of breath and lower oxygen levels in your blood, among other issues.

It appears the only “cure” for HPS is a liver transplant.

In steps gluten. A number of lung and liver diseases are linked to celiac disease and gluten toxicity. Many of them will reverse or resolve when gluten is removed from the diet. Neither of the sites I peeked at mentioned a word about gluten intolerance or celiac disease.

“At a gluten-related conference I heard the story of a man who needed a liver transplant who was diagnosed with CD. When his doctors put him on a GFD his liver began to mend; ultimately, he no longer needed the transplant. This story was undocumented, but there is a formal study proclaiming that patients with critical liver dysfunction who adopt a strict GFD may preclude liver failure, even when a liver transplant is being contemplated. Of the four patients in this study who had acute liver disease, ‘hepatic dysfunction reversed in all cases when a gluten-free diet was adopted.’ (1) Seems to me this should be headline news, but I wonder how many folks with severe or even mild liver ailments have ever heard the words gluten or celiac disease uttered by their doctors.” (2)

“Some of the liver diseases associated with CD are autoimmune hepatitis, nonspecific reactive hepatitis (‘the most common’), primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis.(3) Liver disease can occur in people of any age, including children. A 2009 Swedish study of children with CD concluded that ‘severe hepatic damage or failure’ could evolve and that children with CD should be assessed for ‘liver function and vice versa, children with severe liver damage should be investigated for untreated celiac disease.’(4) The link is obvious! Nearly 40 percent of children and adults with ‘fatty liver transaminitis or hepatitis’ who have barely any symptoms have liver issues that improve or resolve themselves on a GFD.”(5)(6)

Many lung diseases and ailments are linked to gluten. The research is sparse, but there is some linked to various ailmets that cleared up with my storytellers in Toxic Staple. A woman was told she had lung cancer with a short time to live. It turned out to be sarcoidosis which cleared up with a gluten-free lifestyle…even the pain from the scar tissue disappeared; asthma and reactive-airway disappeared on the GFD; a chronic dry cough vanished on the GFD; lung function crashed and returned (see Holly’s story on page 135).

Research exists on idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and fibrosing lung disease as linked to gluten. Some patients with dermatomyosistis (DM) may have lung cancer among other cancers and it is recommended that those with DM be screened for celiac disease.

If you should have unrecognized and therefore untreated celiac disease or gluten intolerance and your body is not absorbing vital nutrients needed for optimal health how can you expect to have healthy lungs, liver, blood or even a healthy brain?

If you have most any serious disease, especially autoimmune, or any chronic symptom, I urge you to get educated and get tested. I spell it out in Toxic Staple as only an irritated grandmother could. You can make a copy of the testing, both blood and stool to discuss with your doctor. It is life-enhancing information.

See Disclaimer: http://toxicstaple.com/disclaimer/

 Your future health may depend on addressing gluten. To order your personalized copy now visit: http://toxicstaple.com/buy-the-book/ or visit https://www.amazon.com/Toxic-Staple-Gluten-Wrecking-Health/dp/0989239217 or check in at your favorite book store.

http://hpscare.com/for-patients/ This site provoked my interest in writing this blog.

  1. Kaukinen, K. et al., “Celiac Disease in Patients with Severe Liver Disease: Gluten-free Diet May Reverse Hepatic Failure.” Gastroenterology 122, no. 4 (2002): 881–88.
  2. Quote from Toxic Staple
  3. Barbero Villares, A. et al.,. [Hepatic Involvement in Celiac Disease.] [In Spanish.] Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 31, no. 1 (2008): 25–28.
  4. Casswall, T. H., et al., “Severe Liver Damage Associated with Celiac Disease: Findings in Six Toddler-aged Girls.” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 21, no. 4 (2009): 452–59.
  5. Duggan, J. M. “Coeliac Disease: The Great Imitator.” Medical Journal of Australia 180, no. 10 (2004): 524–26.
  6. Quote from Toxic Staple

Are Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Lewey Body Linked to Gluten?

I had written this a while back in response to an article in the New Hampshire Leader, Sept 18, 2016; Silver Linings: Issues of Aging in NH: Could This Be A Cure by Gretchen M. Grosky

If nearly 8 million people are suffering from Lewey Body, Alzheimer’s, or Parkinson’s it would seem incumbent on mainstream medicine to look at the root cause of these degenerative, debilitating, and costly diseases that are tearing into the heart of families.

Since gluten can affect any part of the body it would be essential for health professionals, in all facets of medicine, to have a handle on the widespread hazards of gluten consumption. But it appears little is being done to educate our practitioners  (motivation for writing Toxic Staple).

Over 300 symptoms, diseases, and associated conditions are linked to gluten by thousands of world studies. Gluten can affect neurons, the brain, blood, bones, muscles, tissue, organs, glands, and the fetus. It is linked to numerous neurological, gastrointestinal, autoimmune, and cancer issues with strong research to back it up, yet many diseases and symptoms are begging for more.

Significant research links many devastating, neurodegenerative diseases to gluten. Among them are MS, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, ALS, Alzheimer’s/dementia issues, supranuclear palsy, schizophrenia, seizures, autism, ataxia, ADHD, tremors, neuromuscular disease, migraines, depression, ataxia/balance issues and more.

It’s easy to understand how such crippling neurological diseases as Lewy Body, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s can evolve. When the intestinal villi that absorb vitamins and minerals are destroyed due to celiac disease the body becomes deficient in nutrients vital for optimal brain and neural health. Taking a handful of vitamins will do little to help if malabsorption from celiac disease is the problem.

One storyteller (in Toxic Staple) speaks of allergies, skin issues, fatigue to the point of needing a nap in his car at lunchtime, arrhythmias, depression, and memory retrieval problems. He was diagnosed with celiac disease, followed the gluten-free lifestyle 100%, and seven months later everything was gone. Another woman was headed for an Alzheimer’s unit. She was diagnosed with celiac, put on the GF diet and is doing great at age 85 in her own place.

It would be most important for any patient with most any chronic health issue to look into testing for gluten intolerance/sensitivity or celiac disease, but testing is another whole can of worms. Too often not enough testing is given and there can be many false negatives. Patients need to become their own advocate and get educated. Don’t delay!

Order your copy of Toxic Staple here: http://toxicstaple.com/buy-the-book/https://www.amazon.com/Toxic-Staple-Gluten-Wrecking-Health/dp/0989239217

Read endorsements here suggesting doctors read Toxic Staple: http://toxicstaple.com/endorsements/

Disclaimer

JUVENILE ARTHRITIS: Why Do Nearly 300,000 Children Need To Suffer From This Terrible Autoimmune Disease?

It’s because mainstream medicine has their head buried in the sand of “unawareness” (to be kind).

The bottom line of a Medscape article on New Guidelines and Recommendations pertaining to juvenile arthritis is that early exposure to antibiotics in childhood greatly increases the risk of developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), an autoimmune disease. It didn’t seem to matter what type of antibiotic was used. *

Antibiotics are known to wipe out the good bacteria along with the bad, and thus can contribute to an ill-functioning gut. Antibiotics seem to be handed out like candy for just about every childhood ailment.

It’s only been in the last few years that the importance of the gut biome, the condition of your gut, has been seriously recognized by a handful of forward-thinking doctors as being linked to autoimmune disease. You’ve probably heard that 70-80% of the immune system lies within the gut. So if you have a healthy gastrointestinal system you’re probably in pretty good shape, and contrary to that, if you suffer from most any chronic intestinal (or most any other) symptom/ailment you may very well have a “leaky gut.” Keep in mind that you can have full-blown celiac disease and have “no symptoms.”

Dr. Tom O’Bryan, a leading authority on gluten intolerance and celiac disease has stated in his “Betrayal Series” that if you have a healthy gut, you’ll never develop autoimmune disease. Other in-the-know doctors agree with this statement, but the group is miniscule.

Celiac disease is the only autoimmune disease with a known cause: gluten. Why is it that many autoimmune diseases get better or resolve (see stories in my book) on a gluten-free diet? Could gluten be a root cause of all autoimmune disease? Time will tell, but I expect so. Please see the long list of autoimmune diseases in my Table of Contents at http://toxicstaple.com/about-toxic-staple/ that are linked to gluten by major research. There are over 80 autoimmune diseases recognized, but probably another 50-100 awaiting clarification.

When are we going to see studies on JIA (and RA and OA) and gluten? There are 1,000s of studies on celiac and gluten intolerance, but few on the link to arthritis. Yet you will find thousands of studies on drugs to “treat” and “control” arthritis and numerous other autoimmune diseases. Many folks have told me their own rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA) was 95% better after eliminating gluten and allowing their gut to heal. You realize there would be a huge loss of business if everyone with arthritis jumped on a gluten-free diet.

Please, if you know of anyone (especially a child) with arthritis, kindly urge they get tested for celiac disease or gluten intolerance. Too often not enough testing is given to detect a problem so I spell it out in my book, Toxic Staple. To learn more please visit www.toxicstaple.com and always work with your doctor. You can even copy some pages from the book to share.

Disclaimer: http://toxicstaple.com/disclaimer/

Get your copy of Toxic Staple here: https://www.amazon.com/Toxic-Staple-Gluten-Wrecking-Health/dp/0989239217 …or visit: http://toxicstaple.com/buy-the-book/ …or check Home page on the right for an e-book .

*New Guidelines and Recommendations from Medscape, Feb. Edition, p. 20, click on Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. http://reference.medscape.com/features/slideshow/guidelines/2017/february?src=wnl_edit_tpal&uac=156633BG:

Essential update: Children exposed to antibiotics may be at greater risk for juvenile arthritis. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1007276-overview

 

 

 

Parkinson’s Disease and The Gut

Recent research on Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and the gut biome suggests researchers may have been barking up the wrong tree. PD appears to be associated with dysbiosis or the ill health of your gut microbiome, not just the brain as was once thought.

PD has a “strong environmental component.”(1) Does this mean that what we breathe, drink, and eat can seriously affect our health depending on what genes we have? That’s the new line of thinking called epigenetics.

The article mentions exposure to pesticides, but does not mention a word about gluten, and of course there are numerous other toxins in our environment.

Gluten can be the root cause to over 300 symptoms and disorders/diseases that are well substantiated by over 19,000 world studies. Among them are anxiety, mood disorders, depression, headaches/migraines, schizophrenia, autism, ADHD, tics, muscular issues, and many more neurological issues that can be linked to celiac disease, a malabsorption issue. Many of these neuro-disorders can disappear or get miles better once the trigger, gluten, and perhaps dairy and other proteins are detected and removed from the diet and the gut has a chance to heal.

It’s interesting to note that PD patients may also have constipation (a common symptom of celiac) and other gut symptoms years before the PD symptoms first appear.

Although “they” say there is “no cure” and no “preventative” measures perhaps researchers have not looked hard enough at gluten intolerance and celiac disease and thorough enough testing to detect intolerance.

It would be intriguing to know how many newly diagnosed PD, ALS, or Alzheimer’s patients tested positive for gluten intolerance/celiac disease if given the extent of testing presented in my book, Toxic Staple. Too many patients are only given one test; it’s not enough in most cases.

To discover more research on PD and neurological issues related to gluten read Chapter 9: Neurological Dilemmas: The Mind-blowing Hazards of Gluten (the longest chapter in the book).

Order your copy of Toxic Staple here: https://www.amazon.com/Toxic-Staple-Gluten-Wrecking-Health/dp/0989239217 or http://www.toxicstaple.com

(1)Timothy R. Sampson et al. Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Cell, December 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.11.018 http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(16)31590-2

Cell Press. “Gut microbes promote motor deficits in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 December 2016. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161201122159.htm .

 

 

 

 

 

Become Your Own Health Advocate and Change Your Life

WOW! The American people have strongly spoken for change in the United States with the election of Donald Trump.

You, too, can speak up for change in your own health and wellness!

Unfortunately, in too many cases, it is necessary to become an advocate for your own health. Over 300 symptoms, diseases, and associated conditions are linked to gluten by thousands (over 15,000) of research studies from around the world. Very little is being put forth to educate our doctors on the many hazards of consuming gluten. It appears the researchers are all on one side of the river and no bridge has been erected to connect to our doctors. Many alternative and more holistic practitioners are a bit more educated on gluten, but vast unawareness still exists in many facets of medicine.

Did you know:

  • Too many doctors still think celiac disease is only a childhood disease
  • Too many doctors think celiac is only a gastrointestinal issue
  • Celiac disease can affect any part of your body, at any age, and can affect multiple bodily systems
  • Too many doctors have no idea that many gastrointestinal issues can get better once the irritating protein is recognized and addressed
  • Many cancers and autoimmune diseases, neurological, skin, and organ ailments are linked to gluten
  • You need to REQUEST certain blood tests or it’s very likely you will only be offered one test for celiac (that one test has a high rate of false negatives and does not detect intolerance to gluten which affects many more folks)
  • Testing negative for celiac disease does not negate gluten intolerance
  • Few doctors know of the very sensitive stool testing that saved my family

If you or a loved one has most any chronic ailment or illness please do your body and brain a favor and get educated on gluten before your life becomes worse.

Testing information to detect celiac or gluten intolerance is spelled out in my award-winning, life-transforming Toxic Staple as only a driven grandmother could.

Mainstream medicine has shifted over the decades from concern for the patient’s wellness to more interest in “controlling” and “managing” your disease with drugs instead of trying to determine the bottom-line as to what’s making you sick.

Realize that you do have control over much of your health.

I can’t imagine what shape my family or I would be in if we hadn’t discovered gluten was eroding our health, on so many levels. We are all going to meet our Maker, but some of us are going to have an easier and I expect longer ride.

Get your copy of Toxic Staple here: https://www.amazon.com/Toxic-Staple-Gluten-Wrecking-Health/dp/0989239217 or visit: http://toxicstaple.com/buy-the-book/ or check Home page on the right for e-book .

 

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Is It Linked To Gluten?

Just as I was getting out of the car I heard on NPR that in England 1 out of fifty teens (16 years old) were affected by chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). The lives of these kids were being greatly affected by fatigue and other disabling symptoms. I wondered how many younger children were affected as I recalled that my grandson was so tired after dinner he needed help getting into his PJs and up the stairs. This was definitely not normal for a five-year-old. His doctor had no idea what was going on.

There was no mention of gluten or celiac disease as contributing to the CFS in the report. Typical of so much research on numerous illnesses that is more interested in peddling drugs than in what is the root cause of the illness.

It is high time doctors were educated on the hazards of gluten, but since there is huge unawareness of what gluten can do to the human body and brain you must become your own advocate in a quest for better health. Those of you who know anyone with most any chronic symptom please share my website http://www.toxicstaple.com on my award-winning, life-transforming book, Toxic Staple: How Gluten May Be Wrecking Your Health and What You Can Do About It! This is a must read if illness is troubling your family, most any kind of illness: autoimmune, cancer, neurological, organ and skin ailments, women’s and pregnancy issues, and more. It is huge information!

 If you or your child suffers from fatigue/exhaustion, headaches, brain-fog/memory issues, muscle and joint pain, and so much more PLEASE get educated on the hazards of gluten. Read Toxic Staple. Discover the tests you need to REQUEST (or you may not get enough) to get to the bottom of gluten intolerance.

Treasure your life enough to get it and keep it healthy!

Captivating story on chronic fatigue syndrome/gluten: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1356316/At-I-discovered-secret-Emilys-14-lost-years-Esther-Rantzen.html

Article: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/news/2016/chronic-fatigue-syndrome.html

Research: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810786

 

Unexplained Infertility and Miscarriage! What’s The Best Approach?

I was motivated to comment on this article on infertility because not a mention was made of how gluten can affect infertility, sterility, miscarriage, and a poor outcome in pregnancy: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/866729?src=wnl_edit_tpal&uac=156633BG “Evidence-based approach to unexplained infertility: a systematic review.” Gunn DDBates GW.

Below is the first paragraph from Chapter 12 in Toxic Staple, “Our Children Are Our Future.”

“Are our children being done-in by the all-American, gluten-filled diet? Some researchers think so. In fact, one study reports that ‘up to 50% of the women with untreated celiac disease experience miscarriage or an unfavorable outcome of pregnancy.’* Infertility and sterility, spontaneous abortions, menstrual and hypogonadal issues, early births, low birth weight, birth defects, and learning disabilities are some of the many issues that can be related to gluten. I’ve talked with a number of women who were unable to conceive before being diagnosed with celiac disease (CD). Once they began following a gluten-free diet (GFD) and the body replenished itself—usually within six months or so—they became pregnant. ‘Coeliac disease is considerably more common than most of the diseases for which pregnant women are routinely screened,’** yet far too few doctors are aware of the correlation between gluten sensitivity and so many fertility and pregnancy-related issues. And women are not alone in having fertility problems related to CD. For more on the role of gluten sensitivity in male reproductive function, see the section in this chapter on Male Infertility, Loss of Libido, and Impotence.”

The chapter goes on to discuss many other pregnancy, women’s, and men’s issues that for the most part are being neglected by mainstream medicine. The research is there, but in many cases begs for much more. It is criminal that more attention isn’t paid to the numerous and devastating effects of gluten. Gluten is taking a huge and costly toll on our population, especially our young folks.

Are you having trouble conceiving or maintaining a healthy pregnancy?  If so, please do not ignore gluten. When all is said and done, I wonder how many OB/GYNs or infertility specialists might think to test their infertile or problematic pregnancy patients for celiac disease or gluten intolerance? Has your doctor suggested testing (4 blood tests) for gluten issues? If not you may need to become your own advocate.

Nobody really wants to know if they are gluten intolerant or have celiac disease, but gluten is affecting a huge part of our population, maybe as high as about 1/3. Many folks are in sheer denial and keep their heads buried in sand at a cost to their own health or the health of their children. Discovering gluten issues and following an absolute GF lifestyle may just lead to a healthy pregnancy, not to mention a healthy life. Toxic Staple, in Chapters 16 and 17, explains blood and specialized, very sensitive, cutting-edge stool testing your doctor may not be up on (not a lab or hospital stool test). Do not expect to get enough testing to detect a problem by just asking your doctor to test you. Too many folks are not given enough testing or they test false negative on the one test offered and are told they do not have a gluten issue.

Very important: you need to keep eating gluten until you have the blood tests. Do not jump for joy if negative on the blood tests (as were most of my own family). It is crucial you follow through with stool testing (Chapter 17).

Please send your gluten-free success story via contact info above to share as an anonymous testimonial to the benefits of living GF.

* Martinelli, P., R. Troncone, F. Paparo, P. Torre, E. Trapanese, C. Fasano, A. Lamberti, G. Budillon, G. Nardone, and L. Greco. “Coeliac Disease and Unfavourable Outcome of Pregnancy.” Gut 46, no. 3 (2000): 332–35.

** Ibid.